Source code for cnvlib.rna

"""RNA expression levels quantified per gene.

Process per-gene expression levels, or the equivalent, by cohort.
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function
from builtins import zip
import logging

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from scipy.stats import gmean

from .cnary import CopyNumArray as CNA
from .fix import center_by_window


[docs]def before(char): def selector(string): return string.split(char, 1)[0] return selector
[docs]def filter_probes(sample_counts): """Filter probes to only include high-quality, transcribed genes. The human genome has ~25,000 protein coding genes, yet the RSEM output includes ~58,000 rows. Some of these rows correspond to read counts over control probes (e.g. spike-in sequences). Some rows correspond to poorly mapped genes in contigs that have not been linked to the 24 chromosomes (e.g. HLA region). Others correspond to pseudo-genes and non-coding genes. For the purposes of copy number inference, these rows are best removed. """ gene_medians = sample_counts.median(axis=1) # Make sure the gene has detectable transcript in at least half of samples is_mostly_transcribed = (gene_medians >= 1.0)"Dropping %d / %d rarely expressed genes from input samples", (~is_mostly_transcribed).sum(), len(is_mostly_transcribed)) return sample_counts[is_mostly_transcribed]
[docs]def load_gene_info(gene_resource, corr_fname, default_r=.1): """Read gene info from BioMart, and optionally TCGA, into a dataframe. RSEM only outputs the Ensembl ID. We have used the BioMART tool in Ensembl to export a list of all Ensembl genes with a RefSeq mRNA (meaning it is high quality, curated, and bona fide gene) and resides on chromosomes 1-22, X, or Y. The tool also outputs the GC content of the gene, chromosomal coordinates of the gene, and HUGO gene symbol. The gene resource input can be obtained from a resource bundle we provide (for reference genome hg19) or generated from BioMart. """ # Load the gene info file and clean up column names # Original columns: # "Gene stable ID" -- Ensembl ID # "Gene % GC content" # "Chromosome/scaffold name" # "Gene start (bp)" # "Gene end (bp)" # "Gene name" # "NCBI gene ID" # "Transcript length (including UTRs and CDS)" # "Transcript support level (TSL)" info_col_names = ['gene_id', 'gc', 'chromosome', 'start', 'end', 'gene', 'entrez_id', 'tx_length', 'tx_support'] gene_info = (pd.read_table(gene_resource, names=info_col_names, header=1, converters={'gene_id': before('.'), 'tx_support': tsl2int, 'gc': lambda x: float(x)/100}) .sort_values('gene_id'))"Loaded %s with shape: %s", gene_resource, gene_info.shape) if corr_fname: corr_table = load_cnv_expression_corr(corr_fname) gi_corr = gene_info.join(corr_table, on='entrez_id', how='left') if not gi_corr['gene_id'].is_unique: unique_idx = gi_corr.groupby('gene_id').apply(dedupe_ens_hugo) gi_corr = gi_corr.loc[unique_idx] # DBG verify that the tables were aligned correctly # for colname in ('pearson_r', 'spearman_r', 'kendall_t'): # print("In column", colname, "length", len(gi_corr), # ", have", gi_corr[colname].count(), "not-NA,", # (gi_corr[colname] > 0.1).sum(), ">0.1", # ", max value", np.nanmax(gi_corr[colname])) if not gene_info['entrez_id'].is_unique: # Treat untraceable entrez_id duplicates (scarce at this point, ~15) # as unknown correlation, i.e. default, as if not in TCGA entrez_dupes_idx = tuple(locate_entrez_dupes(gi_corr))"Resetting %d ambiguous genes' correlation " "coefficients to default %f", len(entrez_dupes_idx), default_r) gi_corr.loc[entrez_dupes_idx, ('pearson_r', 'spearman_r', 'kendall_t')] = default_r # Genes w/o TCGA info get default correlation 0.1 (= .5*corr.median()) gene_info = gi_corr.fillna({'pearson_r': default_r, 'spearman_r': default_r, 'kendall_t': default_r, }) elif not gene_info['gene_id'].is_unique: # Simpler deduplication, not using TCGA fields unique_idx = gene_info.groupby('gene_id').apply(dedupe_ens_no_hugo) gene_info = gene_info.loc[unique_idx]"Trimmed gene info table to shape: %s", gene_info.shape) assert gene_info['gene_id'].is_unique gene_info['entrez_id'] = gene_info['entrez_id'].fillna(0).astype('int') return gene_info.set_index('gene_id')
[docs]def load_cnv_expression_corr(fname): shared_key = 'Entrez_Gene_Id' table = (pd.read_table(fname, dtype={shared_key: int}, na_filter=False) .set_index(shared_key))"Loaded %s with shape: %s", fname, table.shape) return table
[docs]def tsl2int(tsl): """Convert an Ensembl Transcript Support Level (TSL) code to an integer. The code has the format "tsl([1-5]|NA)". See: """ if tsl in (np.nan, "", "tslNA"): return 0 # Remove "tsl" prefix assert tsl[:3] == "tsl" value = tsl[3:] # Remove possible suffix " (assigned to previous version _)" if len(value) > 2: value = value[:2].rstrip() if value == "NA": return 0 return int(value)
[docs]def dedupe_ens_hugo(dframe): """Emit the "best" index from a group of the same Ensembl ID. The RSEM gene rows are the data of interest, and they're associated with Ensembl IDs to indicate the transcribed gene being measured in each row. The BioMart table of gene info can have duplicate rows for Ensembl ID, which would cause duplicate rows in RSEM import if joined naively. So, we need to select a single row for each group of "gene info" rows with the same Ensembl ID (column 'gene_id'). The keys we can use for this are: - Entrez ID ('entrez_id') - Ensembl gene name ('gene') - Entrez gene name ('hugo_gene') Entrez vs. Ensembl IDs and gene names are potentially many-to-many, e.g. CALM1/2/3. However, if we also require that the Ensembl and HUGO gene names match within a group, that (usually? always?) results in a unique row remaining. (Example: CALM1/2/3 IDs are many-to-many, but of the 3 Entrez IDs associated with Ensembl's CALM1, only 1 is called CALM1 in the Entrez/corr. table.) Failing that (no matches or multiple matches), prefer a lower Entrez ID, because well-characterized, protein-coding genes tend to have been discovered and accessioned first. """ if len(dframe) == 1: return dframe.index[0] match_gene = dframe[dframe['gene'] == dframe['hugo_gene']] if len(match_gene) == 1: return match_gene.index[0] if len(match_gene) > 1: # Take lowest Entrez ID of the matched return dedupe_tx(match_gene) # No matching names -> lowest Entrez ID key return dedupe_tx(dframe)
[docs]def dedupe_ens_no_hugo(dframe): """Deduplicate Ensembl ID using Entrez ID but not HUGO gene name.""" if len(dframe) == 1: return dframe.index[0] return dedupe_tx(dframe)
[docs]def dedupe_tx(dframe): """Deduplicate table rows to select one transcript length per gene. Choose the lowest-number Entrez ID and the transcript with the greatest support (primarily) and length (secondarily). This is done at the end of Ensembl ID deduplication, after filtering on gene names and for single-row tables. Returns an integer row index corresponding to the original table. """ # NB: Transcripts are many-to-1 vs. Ensembl ID, not Entrez ID, so each # unique Entrez ID here will have the same collection of transcripts # associated with it. return (dframe.sort_values(['entrez_id', 'tx_support', 'tx_length'], ascending=[True, False, False], na_position='last') .index[0])
[docs]def locate_entrez_dupes(dframe): """In case the same Entrez ID was assigned to multiple Ensembl IDs. Use HUGO vs. HGNC name again, similar to `dedupe_hugo`, but instead of emiting the indices of the rows to keep, emit the indices of the extra rows -- their correlation values will then be filled in with a default value (np.nan or 0.1). It will then be as if those genes hadn't appeared in the TCGA tables at all, i.e. CNV-expression correlation is unknown, but all entries are still retained in the BioMart table (gene_info). """ for _key, group in dframe.groupby('entrez_id'): if len(group) == 1: continue match_gene_idx = (group['gene'] == group['hugo_gene']) match_gene_cnt = match_gene_idx.sum() if match_gene_cnt == 1: for mismatch_idx in group.index[~match_gene_idx]: yield mismatch_idx else: # Keep the lowest Ensemble ID (of the matched, if any) if match_gene_cnt: # >1 keepable = group[match_gene_idx] else: keepable = group idx_to_keep = keepable.sort_values('gene_id').index.values[0] for idx in group.index: if idx != idx_to_keep: yield idx
[docs]def align_gene_info_to_samples(gene_info, sample_counts, tx_lengths, normal_ids): """Align columns and sort. Also calculate weights and add to gene_info as 'weight', along with transcript lengths as 'tx_length'. """ logging.debug("Dimensions: gene_info=%s, sample_counts=%s", gene_info.shape, sample_counts.shape) sc, gi = sample_counts.align(gene_info, join='inner', axis=0) gi = gi.sort_values(by=['chromosome', 'start']) sc = sc.loc[gi.index] if tx_lengths is not None: # Replace the existing tx_lengths from gene_resource # (RSEM results have this, TCGA gene counts don't) gi['tx_length'] = tx_lengths.loc[gi.index] # Calculate per-gene weights similarly to cnvlib.fix # NB: chrX doesn't need special handling because with X-inactivation, # expression should be similar in male and female samples, i.e. neutral is 0"Weighting genes with below-average read counts") gene_counts = sc.median(axis=1) weights = [np.sqrt((gene_counts / gene_counts.quantile(.75)).clip_upper(1))]"Calculating normalized gene read depths") sample_depths_log2 = normalize_read_depths(sc.divide(gi['tx_length'], axis=0), normal_ids)"Weighting genes by spread of read depths") gene_spreads = sample_depths_log2.std(axis=1) weights.append(gene_spreads) corr_weights = [] for corr_col in ('spearman_r', 'pearson_r', 'kendall_t'): if corr_col in gi:"Weighting genes by %s correlation coefficient", corr_col) corr_weights.append(gi[corr_col].values) if corr_weights: weights.append(np.vstack(corr_weights).mean(axis=0)) weight = gmean(np.vstack(weights), axis=0) gi['weight'] = weight / weight.max() if gi['weight'].isnull().all(): gi['weight'] = 1.0 logging.debug(" --> final zeros: %d / %d", (gi['weight'] == 0).sum(), len(gi)) return gi, sc, sample_depths_log2
[docs]def normalize_read_depths(sample_depths, normal_ids): """Normalize read depths within each sample. Some samples have higher sequencing depth and therefore read depths need to be normalized within each sample. TCGA recommends an upper quartile normalization. After normalizing read depths within each sample, normalize (median-center) within each gene, across samples. Finally, convert to log2 ratios. """ assert sample_depths.values.sum() > 0 sample_depths = sample_depths.fillna(0) for _i in range(4): # By-sample: 75%ile among all genes q3 = sample_depths.quantile(.75) sample_depths /= q3 # By-gene: median among all samples sm = sample_depths.median(axis=1) sample_depths = sample_depths.divide(sm, axis=0) # print(" round", _i, "grand mean:", sample_depths.values.mean(), # ": sample-wise denom =", q3.mean(), # ", gene-wise denom =", sm.mean()) if normal_ids: # Use normal samples as a baseline for read depths normal_ids = pd.Series(normal_ids) if not normal_ids.isin(sample_depths.columns).all(): raise ValueError("Normal sample IDs not in samples: %s" % normal_ids.drop(sample_depths.columns, errors='ignore')) normal_depths = sample_depths.loc[:, normal_ids] use_median = True # TODO - benchmark & pick one if use_median: # Simple approach: divide normalized (1=neutral) values by gene medians normal_avg = normal_depths.median(axis=1) sample_depths = sample_depths.divide(normal_avg, axis=0).clip_lower(0) else: # Alternate approach: divide their IQR # At each gene, sample depths above the normal sample depth 75%ile # are divided by the 75%ile, those below 25%ile are divided by # 25%ile, and those in between are reset to neutral (=1.0) n25, n75 = np.nanpercentile(normal_depths.values, [25, 75], axis=1) below_idx = sample_depths.values < n25[:, np.newaxis] above_idx = sample_depths.values > n75[:, np.newaxis] factor = np.zeros_like(sample_depths.values) factor[below_idx] = (below_idx / n25[:, np.newaxis])[below_idx] factor[above_idx] = (above_idx / n75[:, np.newaxis])[above_idx] sample_depths *= factor sample_depths[~(below_idx | above_idx)] = 1.0 # Finally, convert normalized read depths to log2 scale return safe_log2(sample_depths, NULL_LOG2_COVERAGE)
[docs]def safe_log2(values, min_log2): """Transform values to log2 scale, safely handling zeros. Parameters ---------- values : np.array Absolute-scale values to transform. Should be non-negative. min_log2 : float Assign input zeros this log2-scaled value instead of -inf. Rather than hard-clipping, input values near 0 (especially below 2^min_log2) will be squeezed a bit above `min_log2` in the log2-scale output. """ absolute_shift = 2 ** min_log2 return np.log2(values + absolute_shift)
[docs]def attach_gene_info_to_cnr(sample_counts, sample_data_log2, gene_info, read_len=100): """Join gene info to each sample's log2 expression ratios. Add the Ensembl gene info to the aggregated gene expected read counts, dropping genes that are not in the Ensembl table I.e., filter probes down to those genes that have names/IDs in the gene resource table. Split out samples to individual .cnr files, keeping (most) gene info. """ gi_cols = ['chromosome', 'start', 'end', 'gene', 'gc', 'tx_length', 'weight'] cnr_info = gene_info.loc[:, gi_cols] # Fill NA fields with the lowest finite value in the same row. # Only use NULL_LOG2_COVERAGE if all samples are NA / zero-depth. gene_minima = sample_data_log2.min(axis=1, skipna=True) assert not gene_minima.hasnans, gene_minima.head() for (sample_id, sample_col), (_sid_log2, sample_log2) \ in zip(sample_counts.iteritems(), sample_data_log2.iteritems()): tx_len = cnr_info.tx_length sample_depth = (read_len * sample_col / tx_len).rename("depth") sample_log2 = sample_log2.fillna(gene_minima).rename("log2") cdata = (pd.concat([cnr_info, sample_depth, sample_log2], axis=1) .reset_index(drop=True)) cnr = CNA(cdata, {'sample_id': sample_id}) cnr.sort_columns() yield cnr
[docs]def correct_cnr(cnr, do_gc, do_txlen, max_log2): """Apply bias corrections & smoothing. - Biases: 'gc', 'length' - Smoothing: rolling triangle window using weights. """ cnr.center_all() # Biases, similar to stock CNVkit if any((do_gc, do_txlen)): if do_gc and 'gc' in cnr: cnr = center_by_window(cnr, .1, cnr['gc']) if do_txlen and 'tx_length' in cnr: cnr = center_by_window(cnr, .1, cnr['tx_length']) cnr.center_all() if max_log2: cnr[cnr['log2'] > max_log2, 'log2'] = max_log2 return cnr